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Durée: 1 heure  Coeff.: 01

Trade unions originated in Great Britain and the United States in the 19th century as an association of workers using the same skill; they became concerned with improving wages and working conditions by the device of collective bargaining. As mass production industries developed, larger unions were formed to include semi and unskilled workers.

Unions bargain with employers about pay hours and working conditions; about the way wages are paid; about allowances, extra payments and about retirement and pension arrangements. They protect workers against unfair disciplinary action or dismissal. Where lay-offs or redundancies are threatened they negotiate with the employer to protect members. They press employers to make sure safety standards are maintained, etc. When negotiation fails, then the union may call its members out on strike. The right to strike is fundamental for trade unions and their members. It is their ultimate weapon to protect themselves against an employer who tries to use his power to force them to work in conditions or at a pay level they are not prepared to accept. The right not to work, except on agreed terms is one important difference between a free worker and a slave.

Adapted from “Learning to Manage”. PP 90-91

A trade union: Un syndicat
Collective bargaining: Des négociations collectives


I Vocabulary    (4 pts)
Find in the text words of similar meaning for the following.
1.    salaries    (1 pt)
2.    demonstration (1 pt)
3.    arm    (1 pt)
4.    employees    (1 pt)

II Comprehension    (8 pts)

II-1 Read the text and say whether the following statements are true or false. (5 pts)
a)    The trade unions were created in Spain around the 16th century. (1 pt)
b)    The role of the trade union is to defend the workers interests. (1 pt)
c)    When an employee is dismissed, the trade union is not allowed to react.(l pt)
d)    The trade union negotiates with the employer, before going on strike. (1 pt)
e)    There is not any difference between a slave and a free worker. (1 pt)
II-2 Answer the following questions according to the text. (3 pts)
a)    Mention there (03) reasons why the trade union negotiates with the employers (1 Pts)
b)    When does the trade union go on stake? (1 pt)
c)    What does strike represent for the trade union? (1 pt)

III- Language Practice (8pts)

III-l Fill in the gap with the appropriate preposition from the list: at- on-under- with - for - in (5 pts)
a)    Alice is looking,        a sustainable solution to her job problem (1 pt)
b)    The boss is really interested    my proposal. (1 pt)
c)    People are getting fed up    the high cost of living?(l pt)
d)    Why are you laughing    the Manager?    (1 pt)
e)    You can go, the dog is not    the car.(l pt)

III-2 Turn the following sentences into passive voice (3 pts)
a)    The policeman caught the thief of the company last week. (l,5pts)
b)    The boss punishes the lazy workers. (1,5 pts)

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