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Health (From Emile KAHOUN, Lycee Yadega)

Until the twentieth century some people confused being able to stay in a vertical position, with being in good health. As long as one could stand and walk, he was not ill. Everything will be alright as soon as he is on his feet. Today, a wildly accepted definition developed by the World Health Organization says that: “health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not simply the absence of disease or infirmity.”
Good health is not often seen as a goal in itself; it’s a means to attain goals and a necessary condition for success in almost everything. Health is a changing and dynamic quality of life. There are many interrelated factors that play a vital part in the development and maintenance of sound health. Many of these factors are apparent: heredity; nutrition; rest; sleep; exercise; fatigue and accidents. Others are less apparent but significant. They include excesses, noise....
Some cultures kept early beliefs regarding health and sickness. Supernaturalism remained dominant, with religion playing a central role. Demons, spirits, and numerous gods continued to be thought the source of ill-health and spells and sacrifices were done to appease them.
Some very practical and scientific measures made notable contribution to heal and medicine such as large scale vaccination programs, the introduction of insecticides, the advancement in chemotherapy for example drugs, antibiotics, vitamins and other important discovering in nutrition, the significant advances in surgical procedures and techniques, including organ transplantation.
Education and persuasion are the keys to public health. They are directed towards programs of education, prevention, and treatment of disease and infirmities.

Foundation of Health Science (Adapted by B. Osbord Henkel)

(1) goal: objective
(2) gods: divinities
(3) spells: "des sorts"
(4) chemotherapy: use of chemical material as medicine.


1)What is the illusion as far as health is concerned. (5 lines) 2 marks.
2) Is health the absence of illness? Justify your answer. (6 lines) 2 marks.
3) What is the people's dogmatic view of ill/health? (5 lines) 3 marks.
1) Has health known any notable evolution nowadays? Why? (5 lines) 3 marks.

GRAMMAR (5 marks)

Use the correct tense of the verb.

1) It (to rain) now.
2) Look! The dog (to play) with the cat.
3) Franck (to drink ) tea everyday.
4) You (to wash) the car tomorrow.
5) Bob (to buy) two books last week.


1) J'ai travaillé dur la semaine passée.
2) Une fois par semaine, je vais a la rivière.
3) Il parle depuis deux heures.
4) Il est parti aux USA il y a deux ans.
5) Ils écoutent la radio depuis le matin.
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